Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Search Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 2379
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

 Table of Contents  
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 315-322

Accuracy of different impression materials in parallel and nonparallel implants

Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Date of Web Publication27-Jul-2015

Correspondence Address:
Kianoosh Torabi
Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.161429

Rights and Permissions

Background: A precise impression is mandatory to obtain passive fit in implant-supported prostheses. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of three impression materials in both parallel and nonparallel implant positions.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two partial dentate maxillary acrylic models with four implant analogues in canines and lateral incisors areas were used. One model was simulating the parallel condition and the other nonparallel one, in which implants were tilted 30° bucally and 20° in either mesial or distal directions. Thirty stone casts were made from each model using polyether (Impregum), additional silicone (Monopren) and vinyl siloxanether (Identium), with open tray technique. The distortion values in three-dimensions (X, Y and Z-axis) were measured by coordinate measuring machine. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for data analysis (α = 0.05).
Results: Under parallel condition, all the materials showed comparable, accurate casts (P = 0.74). In the presence of angulated implants, while Monopren showed more accurate results compared to Impregum (P = 0.01), Identium yielded almost similar results to those produced by Impregum (P = 0.27) and Monopren (P = 0.26).
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, in parallel conditions, the type of impression material cannot affect the accuracy of the implant impressions; however, in nonparallel conditions, polyvinyl siloxane is shown to be a better choice, followed by vinyl siloxanether and polyether respectively.

Keywords: Dental implants, dental impression materials, dental impression techniques, polyvinyls

How to cite this article:
Vojdani M, Torabi K, Ansarifard E. Accuracy of different impression materials in parallel and nonparallel implants. Dent Res J 2015;12:315-22

How to cite this URL:
Vojdani M, Torabi K, Ansarifard E. Accuracy of different impression materials in parallel and nonparallel implants. Dent Res J [serial online] 2015 [cited 2023 Oct 4];12:315-22. Available from: https://www.drjjournal.net/text.asp?2015/12/4/315/161429

  Introduction Top

As the dental implants are not supported by a periodontal ligament to compensate for a certain degree of inaccuracy in fixed dental prostheses, passive fit is the primary objective in fabricating a successful superstructure for osseointegrated endosseous implants. [1],[2] Implant-prosthesis set shows only a minimal mobility caused by the elasticity of bone. [3]

A nonpassive framework results in the accumulation of stresses in the implant-prosthesis set, leading to certain biological and mechanical complications such as screw loosening, screw fracture, occlusal discrepancies, [4],[5] loss of osseointegration, plaque accumulation, soft and hard tissue problems, and bone loss. [1],[6]

There is tremendous uncertainty concerning the amount of stress that may be clinically tolerable about the long-term serviceability of the restorations. Although in practice, it is impossible to attain complete passive fit, [7] the clinicians must strive to overcome the variables influencing the clinical acceptable fit. The precise transfer of spatial relationships of implants to the master cast during making the impression is the first and critical step to ensure a strain-free superstructure. [8]

Numerous researchers have investigated the factors that affect the accuracy of impressions, such as impression techniques, [9],[10],[11],[12] different impression materials, [13],[14],[15] implant angulations, [1],[11] splinting or nonsplinting, [16],[17],[18],[19],[20] the impression copings modifications, [2],[21],[22],[23] type of impression tray, [24] depth of implant, [6],[13] connection length, [2],[3] fixture or abutment level impression, [25],[26],[27] the time between impression making and pouring, [28] and implant system tolerance. [10],[20],[29]

Among the impression materials so far used for implant impression, polyether and additional silicone (A-silicon) are mostly suggested. [3],[25],[28],[30],[31],[32],[33],[34]

While Wee, [34] Seyedan et al. [16] and Lee and Cho [18] found no difference between polyether and polyvinyl siloxane (PVS), Lee et al. [8] demonstrated that, in subgingival situations, PVS leads to better accuracy compared to polyether. In another study carried out by Wenz and Hertrampf, [12] the performance of polyether was shown to be superior to PVS.

Vinyl siloxanether, composed of polyether and additional PVS, is a new impression material which is claimed [35] to have all the theoretical advantages of polyether [36] and PVS such as excellent flow ability, remarkable hydrophilicity, easy handling and optimized elastomeric properties. In addition to achieving its high final hardness immediately after the setting, vinyl siloxanether guarantees the precision of the impression. Furthermore, although it has different consistencies (heavy, medium, medium soft and light), the medium one is recommended for implant impression. [37]

A lack of parallelism among the implants, and that between the implants and the teeth is a common finding in clinic, which is due to anatomical limitations or the esthetic considerations. This may lead to undesirable path of impression withdrawal which is considered as a cause of impression distortion. Whereas most of the previous in vitro investigations have evaluated the impression accuracy under the ideal condition with parallel implants, [12],[20] fewer studies have assessed the influence of nonparallel implants especially with four or more implants. [13],[30],[38] Moreover, previous studies failed to arrive at a clear consensus over impression materials and angulations. Some studies showed that when two or three implants are required, angulation of the implant has no adverse effect on the accuracy of impression. [1],[11],[39] Assuncao et al. [30] reported better results for the parallel situations compared to the 10, 15 and 25° angulations.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of impression materials and implant angulations on the accuracy of impressions in parallel and nonparallel implants.

The null hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference in the accuracy of the impressions between the parallel and angulated implants with different impression materials.

  Materials and Methods Top

Master models fabrication

Two heat-polymerized acrylic resin (Lucitone Clear; Dentsply International, York, PA, USA) master models of a maxillary arch with four internal connection implant analogues (3.5 mm × 10 mm) (130527P4, Dio Co., Busan, South Korea) were made. They were fabricated by duplicating a dentiform (D51DP-TRM.444, Nissin Dental Products Inc., Kyoto, Japan). The anatomic crown portions of premolars, canines and incisors of the dentiform were ground flat to simulate a residual ridge. On the lateral incisors and canines areas, four holes were prepared. The two models had different orientations of the implant replicas. In the master model 1, the longitudinal axes of analogues were parallel to each other and at right angle to the horizontal plane [Figure 1]. The four implant analogues (130527P4: Dio Co., Busan, South Korea) were sequentially numbered 1-4 from left to right. In master model 2, the implant analogues were positioned at 30° buccally in relation to their long axes. They were also positioned at 20° distally (implants No. 1, 4) and or mesially (implants No. 2, 3) in relation to horizontal the surface of the master model [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Master model 1 (parallel situation).

Click here to view
Figure 2: Master model 2 (angulated situation).

Click here to view

Implant analogues were fixed within the arranged holes using an auto-polymerizing clear acrylic resin (Orthojet; Lang Dental Manufacturing Co., Wheeling, IL, USA).

Impression tray design

Four open tray impression copings (Narrow, Pick Up, Sip3907N, Dio. co., Busan, South Korea) were hand-tightened to implant analogues. For fabricating special trays, two layers of base plate wax (Modeling wax; Dentsply Ltd., Weybridge, UK) were placed on the master models. Four stops were made by using a milling machine (Kavo EWL-K9, Leutkirch, Germany) to standardize the path of insertion and removal. Three of the stops had a rectangle shape with the area size of 2 mm × 4 mm and were placed in the landing area of the master model (two stops in the posterior part and one in the anterior part of the model). The last stop was in the midpalate in form of a 4 mm × 4 mm. To ensure uniform thickness of the impression material in all trays, both master models were duplicated by using A-Silicone (Monopren, Kettenbach, Eschenberg, Germany) and the impressions were poured using a type IV die stone (Herostone, Vigodent, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) to obtain two casts on which all trays were made. A total of 30 custom open trays for each model (60 trays in total) were made using auto-polymerized acrylic resin (Jet; Artigos Odontologicos Classico Ltd., Sao Paulo, Brazil). The trays were stored at room temperature for 24 h before making the impression.

Impression procedure

In this study, there were six experimental groups (due to the three impression materials evaluated in two situations of implant angulations) as well as two control groups required for the two master models. A sample size of 10 was used in the experimental groups. Polyether (Impregum, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany), A-silicon (Monopren, Iso4823, Kettenbach Gm BH & co. KG, Im, Heerfeld, Eschenburg, Germany) and vinyl siloxanether (Identium, Medium Kettenbach Gm BH & co. KG, Im, Heerfeld, Eschenburg, Germany) impression materials, all with medium consistency, were selected for this experiment. Appropriate adhesive was applied to the custom trays 1 h before impression making.

The impression protocol was standardized as follows:

  1. A 1.5 kg metal block exerted a standardized pressure on each tray during the polymerization.
  2. The impression copings were secured with flat head screw on the implant analogues using dedicated torque wrench calibrated at 10 Ncm. The copings were coated with the appropriate adhesive of the impression material.
  3. Impression-master model complex was placed in distilled water at 37°C during the polymerization time.
  4. A-silicon was auto mix and polyether was hand-mixed according to the manufacturer's instructions.

After unscrewing impression copings, all the impressions were removed in the right angle to occlusal plan and checked for accuracy. If any inaccuracy, such as bubble, drag, or nonhomogeneous mix of materials was detected, the impression would be repeated. Then, implant analogues were screwed to the impression copings in the impression.

After 24 h, the impressions were poured using an type IV die stone (Herostone, Vigodent, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), in accordance with manufacturer's instructions. To minimize the alteration of the setting expansion of the die stone, all the impressions were poured using a single prefabricated mold. All casts were stored at room temperature (23°C) and 50% relative humidity for a minimum of 24 h prior to measurements. All clinical and laboratory procedures were performed by the same operator.


A coordinate measuring machine (CMM) (Mitutoyo Corp, Aurora, Ill, USA) was used to evaluate the positional accuracy of the samples. The machine probe moved within its limit in the space and measured the relative distances of the objects [Figure 3]. The measurement accuracy of the instrument was 0.001 mm for X, Y and Z-axis; all the measurements were made by the one operator.
Figure 3: The coordinate measuring machine probe measuring the relative distances of analogues.

Click here to view

The following measuring protocol was used throughout the study: the analogues were denoted by 1-4 from left to right [Figure 4]. The center of the analogue 1 was determined as a reference point. The planar surface from this point was regarded as XY. An imaginary XZ line was considered between the centers of the analogue 1 and 4. The XZ plane was perpendicular to XY plane. Therefore the center of analogue 1 was laid on the origin (0, 0, 0) and the center of analogue 4 was laid on the XZ plane (X, 0, Z) For each analogue in the master models as well as the definitive casts, CMM measured the Cartesian coordinates (X, Y and Z) of each analogue with respect to the determined reference axis. In order to find the euclidean distance between each pair of analogues, the difference between their coordinate values in each dimension was computed (denoted as Δx, Δy and Δz). Thus, six distance values (d = √Δx2 + Δy2 + Δz2) were measured on the master models as well as the experimental samples (denoted as d1 to d6), as shown in [Figure 4]. In all dimensions, measurements were repeated 3 times and the mean was used for the analysis. Having computed the difference values between the master model distance values and those of the cast, six distortion values were obtained for each cast, (denoted as Δd 1 to Δd 6). The total three-dimensional distortion value for a sample cast was then obtained from the summation of Δd 1 to Δd 6. The data were transferred to SPSS software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) for the purpose of analysis. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for data analysis (α = 0.05).
Figure 4: A schematic view of the reference points used to measure the distances.

Click here to view

  Results Top

[Table 1] presents the mean values and standard deviations of the studied groups. Two-way ANOVA showed that there were significant differences between the materials and angulations, as well as their interactions (P < 0.05) [Table 2]. One-way ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference between the three impression materials in the parallel condition (P = 0.74). However, there was a significant difference in the nonparallel condition (P = 0.01). Tukey test was performed for multiple comparisons. In the presence of angulated implants, Monopren showed more accurate results compared to Impregum (P = 0.01) but no significant difference was observed between Identium/Impregum (P = 0.27), and Identium/Monopren (P = 0.26)
Table 1: Mean values and SDs of the measured distances of the studied groups (mm)

Click here to view
Table 2: Two-way ANOVA

Click here to view

  Discussion Top

According to the recorded data, the null hypothesis was partially rejected because the accuracy of the impression materials was only different in non-parallel implants.

The impression material should be accurate (showing minimal distortion) with adequate rigidity (holding the impression coping tightly to prevent accidental displacement). [25],[34],[38],[39] Some researchers investigated medium-body-consistency polyether and heavy-body-consistency PVS materials. Both materials were observed to meet the two previously mentioned requirements of impression materials. [25],[31],[32] Other studies assessed mechanical properties of heavy-body PVS and polyether and concluded that PVSs with greater modulus of elasticity would result in better accuracy in comparison to polyether. [33]

Moreover, the physical retention in the impression tray and also the application of appropriate adhesive play crucial roles in the dimensional stability of impression materials. Impression coping with physical retention probably has a significant effect on the reduction of minor movement of impression copings during clinical and laboratory procedures.

Fixture-level impression allows a selection of the most proper abutments. Then, it is mostly helpful in situations where angulation of the abutments and the vertical space are difficult to be determined intraorally. Moreover, since fixture-level impression eliminates the need to cover the abutments with temporary restorations or protective caps, replacement of the healing caps will be facilitated. [1],[3]

While the findings of most studies conducted so far showed no difference between the direct and indirect impression techniques, there were few investigations which reported the superiority of open tray technique. Carr [38] mentioned that in closed tray technique, using polyether in nonparallel situation, leads to deformation of the impression.

The accuracy of the implant level impression technique may be affected by the connection structure. Unlike the external-hexagon implant, which has a short hexagon, some implants with the internal connection have longer walls of relative parallelism which complicates the removal of impression. [3]

Vigolo et al. [2] reported that the splinted technique led to more accurate definitive casts when multiple internal-connection implants with an almost parallel configuration were to be restored. The inaccuracy of the impression would be exaggerated in internal connection implants with longer walls of relative parallelism. [3]

In such cases, it might be impossible to remove the rigid splinted internal-connection. Hence, this will necessitate the use of no splinted impression copings. [2]

To the best of our knowledge, the only study which has assessed vinyl siloxanether- a new material which is categorized between A-silicone and polyether material - was performed by Enkling et al. [35] They investigated the subjective and objective clinical fit of dental prosthesis made by using polyether (Impregum penta) and Identium. Both materials showed comparable results. However, Identium indicated superiority about subjective assessment of the dentist (handling, taste, precision detail of impression) and the dental technician (the ease of removing plaster model from the mold). [35]

In general, the results of the present study are in line with those of the previous studies, [38],[39],[40],[41] showing no difference between PVS and polyether in multi-implant impression in the parallel situation.

Identium appears to be a good alternative for PVS and polyether in the parallel situations in partially edentulous arches.

Parallel placement of the implant may ease the removal of impressions. Therefore, it probably reduces the distortion of impressions in partially dentate arches. The angulations of the teeth, the relations of the teeth to implants and the amount of undercuts influence the ease of removal. The presence of teeth in partially dentate arches causes the anatomical undercuts which increase both the removal forces and the consequent impression distortion.

In brief, the results obtained in a parallel situation using three impression materials were all comparably satisfactory.

Some studies have indicated the superiority of polyether in the parallel conditions compared to angulated ones. [1],[3] In the present study, polyether has shown a tendency toward the increase of mean distortion value with the implant angulations. The measurements of Identium demonstrated noninferiority of the Identium in the angulated situation in comparison with the PVS. Some scholars suggest polyether as the best choice for complete edentulous multi-implant impressions, due to its rigidity. [3] Nevertheless, in partially edentulous arches, this material makes the withdrawal of the impression more difficult. Thus, it probably increases permanent deformations. [38],[39],[40] On the other hand, PVS, due to its more favorable lower rigidity, is considered as a viable alternative. It can be used more safely in partially edentulous particularly in nonparallel situations. [40],[41]

Lee et al. [8] concluded that, in subgingival implant placement, PVS showed greater accuracy than polyether; however, there was no effect of implant depth on the accuracy of PVS group.

The findings of this study support the use of PVS (Monopren) for partially edentulous multi-unit angulated implant impressions.

The implant system can influence the impression accuracy in different ways: The design and the length of impression copings, the connection length and the machining tolerance of the system (defined as the difference in rest positions between the components when they are connected by their screws). Ma et al. [29] concluded that connecting a component can induce as much displacement as that resulting only from an impression or cast fabrication. Given that, we did not measure this tolerance; hence, the results should be interpreted with caution. It must be assumed that this tolerance might have significantly affected the distortion beyond the inaccuracy of impression material itself in the present study.

The design of the present study involved a few limitations. The measured distortion values did not completely evaluate the axial rotations of the components. The present investigation was carried out using four implants; therefore, the results may not necessarily be generalized for impressions made using higher numbers of implants. The implant angulations performed throughout the experiments were all limited to 30°. Finally, in this study, only internal connection implants were used, and external connections were not considered at all.

Further clinical investigations would be necessary to confirm the results of the present in vitro study. Even though we tried to simulate the clinical situations closely, further in vivo studies would be essential to yield more clinically applicable findings. The comprehensive characteristic of vinyl siloxanether ought to be more clarified through further investigations.

  Conclusion Top

Within the limitations of this study, the following conclusions can be drawn:

  1. The presence of undercuts and the implant angulation both negatively affected the precision of the impressions.
  2. In the presence of nonparallel implants, the use of additional silicones resulted in more accurate casts than polyether.
  3. In the presence of parallel implants, there were no significant differences among all the three materials.

  Acknowlegments Top

The authors thank the Vice-Chancellory of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences for supporting this research. This article is based on the thesis by Dr. Elham Ansarifard. The authors also thank Dr. M. Vossugh of the Dental Research Development Center, School of Dentistry for the statistical analysis and Dr. Sh. Hamedani for English editing of the manuscript.

This project was also financially supported by Dio Implant System Co., and Kettenbach GmbH and Co., KG for which authors would like to thankfully acknowledge.

  References Top

Choi JH, Lim YJ, Yim SH, Kim CW. Evaluation of the accuracy of implant-level impression techniques for internal-connection implant prostheses in parallel and divergent models. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2007;22:761-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
Vigolo P, Fonzi F, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. An evaluation of impression techniques for multiple internal connection implant prostheses. J Prosthet Dent 2004;92:470-6.  Back to cited text no. 2
Sorrentino R, Gherlone EF, Calesini G, Zarone F. Effect of implant angulation, connection length, and impression material on the dimensional accuracy of implant impressions: An in vitro comparative study. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2010;12 Suppl 1:e63-76.  Back to cited text no. 3
Walton JN, MacEntee MI. Problems with prostheses on implants: A retrospective study. J Prosthet Dent 1994;71:283-8.  Back to cited text no. 4
Brunski JB. Biomechanical factors affecting the bone-dental implant interface. Clin Mater 1992;10:153-201.  Back to cited text no. 5
Brunski JB. Biomechanics of oral implants: Future research directions. J Dent Educ 1988;52:775-87.  Back to cited text no. 6
Kan JY, Rungcharassaeng K, Bohsali K, Goodacre CJ, Lang BR. Clinical methods for evaluating implant framework fit. J Prosthet Dent 1999;81:7-13.  Back to cited text no. 7
Lee H, Ercoli C, Funkenbusch PD, Feng C. Effect of subgingival depth of implant placement on the dimensional accuracy of the implant impression: An in vitro study. J Prosthet Dent 2008;99:107-13.  Back to cited text no. 8
Cabral LM, Guedes CG. Comparative analysis of 4 impression techniques for implants. Implant Dent 2007;16:187-94.  Back to cited text no. 9
Del'Acqua MA, Arioli-Filho JN, Compagnoni MA, Mollo Fde A Jr. Accuracy of impression and pouring techniques for an implant-supported prosthesis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23:226-36.  Back to cited text no. 10
Conrad HJ, Pesun IJ, DeLong R, Hodges JS. Accuracy of two impression techniques with angulated implants. J Prosthet Dent 2007;97:349-56.  Back to cited text no. 11
Wenz HJ, Hertrampf K. Accuracy of impressions and casts using different implant impression techniques in a multi-implant system with an internal hex connection. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2008;23:39-47.  Back to cited text no. 12
Lee H, So JS, Hochstedler JL, Ercoli C. The accuracy of implant impressions: A systematic review. J Prosthet Dent 2008;100:285-91.  Back to cited text no. 13
Lorenzoni M, Pertl C, Penkner K, Polansky R, Sedaj B, Wegscheider WA. Comparison of the transfer precision of three different impression materials in combination with transfer caps for the Frialit-2 system. J Oral Rehabil 2000;27:629-38.  Back to cited text no. 14
Jannesar S, Siadat H, Alikhasi M. A dual impression technique for implant overdentures. J Prosthodont 2007;16:327-9.  Back to cited text no. 15
Seyedan K, Sazgara H, Kalalipour M, Alavi K. Dimensional accuracy of polyether and poly vinyl siloxane materials for different implant impression technique. Res J Appl Sci 2008;3:257-63.  Back to cited text no. 16
Filho HG, Mazaro JV, Vedovatto E, Assunção WG, dos Santos PH. Accuracy of impression techniques for implants. Part 2 - Comparison of splinting techniques. J Prosthodont 2009;18:172-6.  Back to cited text no. 17
Lee SJ, Cho SB. Accuracy of five implant impression technique: Effect of splinting materials and methods. J Adv Prosthodont 2011;3:177-85.  Back to cited text no. 18
Burawi G, Houston F, Byrne D, Claffey N. A comparison of the dimensional accuracy of the splinted and unsplinted impression techniques for the Bone-Lock implant system. J Prosthet Dent 1997;77:68-75.  Back to cited text no. 19
Kim S, Nicholls JI, Han CH, Lee KW. Displacement of implant components from impressions to definitive casts. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2006;21:747-55.  Back to cited text no. 20
Assunção WG, Cardoso A, Gomes EA, Tabata LF, dos Santos PH. Accuracy of impression techniques for implants. Part 1 - Influence of transfer copings surface abrasion. J Prosthodont 2008;17:641-7.  Back to cited text no. 21
Vigolo P, Majzoub Z, Cordioli G. Evaluation of the accuracy of three techniques used for multiple implant abutment impressions. J Prosthet Dent 2003;89:186-92.  Back to cited text no. 22
Rashidan N, Alikhasi M, Samadizadeh S, Beyabanaki E, Kharazifard MJ. Accuracy of implant impressions with different impression coping types and shapes. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2012;14:218-25.  Back to cited text no. 23
Burns J, Palmer R, Howe L, Wilson R. Accuracy of open tray implant impressions: An in vitro comparison of stock versus custom trays. J Prosthet Dent 2003;89:250-5.  Back to cited text no. 24
Daoudi MF, Setchell DJ, Searson LJ. A laboratory investigation of the accuracy of two impression techniques for single-tooth implants. Int J Prosthodont 2001;14:152-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
Bartlett DW, Greenwood R, Howe L. The suitability of head-of-implant and conventional abutment impression techniques for implant-retained three unit bridges: An in vitro study. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2002;10:163-6.  Back to cited text no. 26
Alikhasi M, Siadat H, Monzavi A, Momen-Heravi F. Three-dimensional accuracy of implant and abutment level impression techniques: Effect on marginal discrepancy. J Oral Implantol 2011;37:649-57.  Back to cited text no. 27
Holst S, Blatz MB, Bergler M, Goellner M, Wichmann M. Influence of impression material and time on the 3-dimensional accuracy of implant impressions. Quintessence Int 2007; 38:67-73.  Back to cited text no. 28
Ma T, Nicholls JI, Rubenstein JE. Tolerance measurements of various implant components. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1997;12:371-5.  Back to cited text no. 29
Assuncao WG, Filho HG, Zaniquelli O. Evaluation of transfer impressions for osseointegrated implants at various angulations. Implant Dent 2004;13:358-66.  Back to cited text no. 30
Akça K, Cehreli MC. Accuracy of 2 impression techniques for ITI implants. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 2004;19:517-23.  Back to cited text no. 31
Cehreli MC, Akça K. Impression techniques and misfit-induced strains on implant-supported superstructures: An in vitro study. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent 2006;26:379-85.  Back to cited text no. 32
Liou AD, Nicholls JI, Yuodelis RA, Brudvik JS. Accuracy of replacing three tapered transfer impression copings in two elastomeric impression materials. Int J Prosthodont 1993;6:377-83.  Back to cited text no. 33
Wee AG. Comparison of impression materials for direct multi-implant impressions. J Prosthet Dent 2000;83:323-31.  Back to cited text no. 34
Enkling N, Bayer S, Jöhren P, Mericske-Stern R. Vinylsiloxanether: A new impression material. Clinical study of implant impressions with vinylsiloxanether versus polyether materials. Clin Implant Dent Relat Res 2012;14:144-51.  Back to cited text no. 35
Shetty S, Kamat G, Shetty R. Wettability changes in polyether impression materials subjected to immersion disinfection. Dent Res J (Isfahan) 2013;10:539-44.  Back to cited text no. 36
Christopher JB. Obtaining a high-quality impression with a new elastomeric material. J Inside Dent 2011;7: 56-61 .  Back to cited text no. 37
Carr AB. Comparison of impression techniques for a five-implant mandibular model. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1991;6:448-55.  Back to cited text no. 38
Carr AB. Comparison of impression techniques for a two-implant 15-degree divergent model. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants 1992;7:468-75.  Back to cited text no. 39
Lu H, Nguyen B, Powers JM. Mechanical properties of 3 hydrophilic addition silicone and polyether elastomeric impression materials. J Prosthet Dent 2004;92:151-4.  Back to cited text no. 40
Schneider RL, Wee AG. Fabricating low-fusing metal casts for more accurate implant prosthodontics. J Prosthodont 1996;5:301-3.  Back to cited text no. 41


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]

  [Table 1], [Table 2]

This article has been cited by
1 Comparative evaluation of linear dimensional accuracy of impressions made with different elastomeric impression materials (Polyether and Polyvinyl siloxane) in angulated and parallel implants-An invitro study
Nirupam Paul, Jogeswar Barman, Barasha Goswami
IP International Journal of Maxillofacial Imaging. 2023; 9(1): 11
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Influence of Implant Impression Methods, Polymer Materials, and Implant Angulation on the Accuracy of Dental Models
Daniela Djurovic Koprivica, Tatjana Puskar, Igor Budak, Mario Sokac, Milica Jeremic Knezevic, Aleksandra Maletin, Bojana Milekic, Djordje Vukelic
Polymers. 2022; 14(14): 2821
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Comparison of the accuracy of impressions made of 2 implants with interfering axial convergence with CAD-CAM impression copings and the altered cast technique: An in vitro study
Maryam Sadegholvad, Elham Ansarifard, Reza Derafshi, Seyede Mina Salehi Dehno
The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 2022; 128(4): 745.e1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Accuracy of digital implant impressions in clinical studies: A systematic review
Alexander Schmidt, Bernd Wöstmann, Maximiliane Amelie Schlenz
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Effect of Implant Angulation on the Rotational Displacement of a 3-Unit Bridge after Digital Impression
Mahnaz Arshad, Amirmohsen Asgari, Mohamad Javad Kharazifard, Narges Ameri, Cesar Rogério Pucci
International Journal of Dentistry. 2022; 2022: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Assessment of impression material accuracy in complete-arch restorations on four implants
Paolo Baldissara,Brunilda Koci,Aion Mangino Messias,Roberto Meneghello,Francesco Ghelli,Maria Rosaria Gatto,Leonardo Ciocca
The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. 2021;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Effect of Implant Angulation and Depth on the Accuracy of Casts Using the Open Tray Splinted Impression Technique
Thanmai Taduri, Somil Mathur, Snehal Upadhyay, Khushali Patel, Meena Shah
Journal of Oral Implantology. 2021; 47(6): 447
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Comparison of Dimensional Accuracy of Three Different Impression Materials Using Three Different Techniques for Implant Impressions: An In Vitro Study
Sunita Singh,Shabab A Khan,Nudrat Neyaz,Mishan Mohohar Jaiswal,Aditi S Tanwar,Amitu Singh
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2021; 22(2): 172
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Evaluation of rotational resistance, and rotational and vertical discrepancy of three different elastomeric impression materials with open tray implant level impressions on a special model
Ambedkar Elumalai, Saravanakumar Mariappan, ChitraShankar Krishnan, Hariharan Ramasubramanian, Jayakrishnakumar Sampathkumar, Hariharan Ramakrishnan, Azhagarasan Nagarasampatti Sivaprakasam, Vallabh Mahadevan
Journal of Dental Implant Research. 2021; 40(3): 66
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 A Comparative Study of Conventional versus Digital Impression Taking in Implant Dentistry- A Systematic Review
Hussien H,Mallesh N
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2019; 8(44): 3362
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Comparative Study of Dimensional Accuracy in Three Dental Implant Impression Techniques: Open Tray, Closed Tray with Impression Coping, and Snap Cap
Alireza Izadi,Bijan Heidari,Ghodratollah Roshanaei,Hanif Allahbakhshi,Farnoush Fotovat
The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2018; 19(8): 974
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Cast accuracy obtained from different impression techniques at different implant angulations (in vitro study)
Enas A. Elshenawy,Ahmed M. Alam-Eldein,Fadel A. Abd Elfatah
International Journal of Implant Dentistry. 2018; 4(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Comparison of Some Mechanical and Physical Properties of three Types of Impression Materials with Different Dental Implant Angulations
Dhuha H. Mohammed,Abdalbseet A. Fatalla,Ghassak H. Jani
Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 2018; 11(3): 1359
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Evaluation of the Accuracy of Conventional and Digital Impression Techniques for Implant Restorations
Renata Vasconcellos Moura,Alberto Noriyuki Kojima,Cintia Helena Coury Saraceni,Lucas Bassolli,Ivan Balducci,Mutlu Özcan,Alfredo Mikail Melo Mesquita
Journal of Prosthodontics. 2018;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 The accuracy of different dental impression techniques for implant-supported dental prostheses: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Tabea Flügge,Wicher Joerd van der Meer,Beatriz Gimenez Gonzalez,Kirstin Vach,Daniel Wismeijer,Ping Wang
Clinical Oral Implants Research. 2018; 29: 374
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Accuracy and mechanical performance of passivated and conventional fabricated 3-unit fixed dental prosthesis on multi-unit abutments
Michael Stimmelmayr,Julian Groesser,Florian Beuer,Kurt Erdelt,Gerald Krennmair,Caroline Sachs,Daniel Edelhoff,Jan-Frederik Güth
Journal of Prosthodontic Research. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Accuracy of various impression materials and methods for two implant systems: An effect size study
Alexander Schmidt,Teresa Häussling,Peter Rehmann,Heidrun Schaaf,Bernd Wöstmann
Journal of Prosthodontic Research. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Different Types of Impression Trays and Impression Materials on the Accuracy of Open Tray Implant Impressions: A Pilot Study
Sonam Gupta,Aparna Ichalangod Narayan,Dhanasekar Balakrishnan
International Journal of Dentistry. 2017; 2017: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Three-Dimensional Accuracy Evaluation of Two Additive Manufacturing Processes in the Production of Dental Models
Alexandru Victor Burde,Cristina Gasparik,Sorana Baciu,Marius Manole,Diana Dudea,Radu Septimiu Câmpian
Key Engineering Materials. 2017; 752: 119
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
Materials and Me...
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded826    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 19    

Recommend this journal