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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 79

Association of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein and tumor necrosis factor alpha with periodontal health and disease: A cross-sectional investigation

Department of Periodontics, M. R. Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Soubiya
D9 GM Infinite Silver Corner, 15 Atmanand Colony, Sultan Palya, R T Nagar Post, Bengaluru, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1735-3327.326652

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Background: Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) is a novel biomarker of inflammation for various chronic systemic diseases. Since periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, this study explores the association of A-FABP with periodontal disease parameters and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels in gingival crevicular fluid in periodontal health and disease. Materials and Methods: This original research article describes a cross-sectional study conducted at the Department of Periodontics, M. R. Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India. This cross-sectional investigation was conducted on sixty subjects which were divided into three groups of twenty subjects each – healthy, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. Clinical parameters – plaque index, bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss were recorded. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were analyzed for A-FABP and TNF-α levels using ELISA. One-way analysis of variance was used to find the significance of study parameters on a continuous scale between three groups. Pearson's correlation has been used to find the relationship between Gingival crevicular fluid concentration of markers and periodontal parameters. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to the study. The statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. Results: Mean concentration of A-FABP (6.43 ± 2.51) and TNF-α (3454.82 ± 1566.44) was highest in the periodontitis group, and the difference among the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). A positive correlation was observed between clinical attachment loss and the two markers among all groups. The correlation between A-FABP and TNF-α in periodontitis groups was positive and statistically significant (P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression model was statistically significant (P < 0.05) indicating that there is a significant relationship between the set of predictors and the clinical attachment loss. Conclusion: A-FABP and TNF-α levels in GCF were significantly elevated in the presence of inflammation. A-FABP has a probable stimulatory effect on TNF-α; however, its role needs to be explored. A-FABP could serve as a novel inflammatory biomarker of periodontitis and the scope of using A-FABP inhibition as a treatment modality could be investigated with interventional studies.

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