|Year : 2022 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 5
Evaluation of the relationship between buccolingual width of mesiobuccal root and root canal morphology of maxillary first molars by cone-beam computed tomography
Fateme Dibaji1, Roza Shariati2, Behrang Moghaddamzade3, Fateme Mohammadian1, Aidin Sooratgar1, Mohammadjavad Kharazifard4
1 Department of Endodontics, Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Science, International Campus, Tehran, Iran
2 Dentist, Tehran, Iran
3 Department of Oral Maxillofacial Radiology, Tehran, Iran
4 Department of Epidemiology, Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
|Date of Submission||03-May-2019|
|Date of Acceptance||13-Jul-2021|
|Date of Web Publication||28-Jan-2022|
Dr. Aidin Sooratgar
Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus, School of Dentistry, Mahan St. Zam Zam St. Navab Highway, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: One of the main reasons for the failure of root canal treatment is the incomplete knowledge of the root canal system. With respect to the complexity of maxillary molars root canal system, and the possibility of the relationship between the buccolingual width of the mesiobuccal root and root canal morphology in maxillary molars, the aim of this study is to determine this relationship with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT).
Materials and Methods: This in vitro study carried out on 311 CBCT scans. Maxillary first molars (n = 311) were evaluated in three sagittal, axial, and coronal planes. For each tooth the number of canals, presence of second mesiobuccal (MB2), buccolingual width of mesiobuccal root at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), and mid-root level, and type of canals according to the Vertucci's classification were determined.
Results: The results showed that 49.1% of first maxillary molars had 3 and 50.8% had four root canals. The most common canal type in the mesiobuccal root was Vertucci's Type I followed by Types II, IV, and V. The prevalence of MB2 in the Iranian subpopulation was 50.1%. In maxillary first molars with MB2, the buccolingual width of mesiobuccal root at the CEJ and mid-root level (P < 0.001) was significantly greater than the corresponding values in other one without MB2.
Conclusion: The results showed that the buccolingual width of mesiobuccal root in maxillary first molars at the CEJ level and mid-root was correlated with the number of root canals.
Keywords: Cone-beam computed tomography, maxilla, molar, morphology, root canal
|How to cite this article:|
Dibaji F, Shariati R, Moghaddamzade B, Mohammadian F, Sooratgar A, Kharazifard M. Evaluation of the relationship between buccolingual width of mesiobuccal root and root canal morphology of maxillary first molars by cone-beam computed tomography. Dent Res J 2022;19:5
|How to cite this URL:|
Dibaji F, Shariati R, Moghaddamzade B, Mohammadian F, Sooratgar A, Kharazifard M. Evaluation of the relationship between buccolingual width of mesiobuccal root and root canal morphology of maxillary first molars by cone-beam computed tomography. Dent Res J [serial online] 2022 [cited 2023 Oct 4];19:5. Available from: https://www.drjjournal.net/text.asp?2022/19/1/5/336690
| Introduction|| |
Knowledge of clinician about the root canal system anatomy and its variations is an important factor for successful endodontic treatment. Missed canals are reported to be responsible for 42% of endodontic retreatments causes. Maxillary first molars are the most difficult teeth for endodontic treatment. Inability to find the second mesiobuccal root canal (MB2) is one of the most common causes of endodontic treatment failure in such teeth.,
Evidences show a correlation between the size of crown and presence of additional root canals in mandibular incisors, mandibular premolars, and distolingual root in mandibular molars.,, Previous studies have shown that the buccolingual width of teeth significantly correlates with the number and type of canals.,,
An ideal method for study the morphology of the root canal system should be accurate, simple, nondestructive, and most importantly applicable in-vivo for examination and diagnosis prior to root canal treatment. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is much more accurate than two-dimensional radiographies. Moreover, it is a nondestructive method and can be used for radiographic examination and diagnosis prior to treatment in-vivo and most importantly, has high accuracy comparable to that of the staining techniques. With respect to the complexity of the maxillary first molar treatment and the high prevalence of MB2 canal in these teeth and also the possible correlation between mesiobuccal root anatomy and its root canal morphology, this study was designed to assess this relationship using CBCT.
| Materials and Methods|| |
Measurement of buccolingual width of the mesiobuccal root at the CEJ level. In this in-vitro study, 311 CBCT scans were evaluated. These CBCTs were taken during 2015–2016 from patients between 30 and 60 years in an oral and maxillofacial radiology clinic in Tehran. All CBCT scans were taken using NewTom VG CBCT system (Image Works, Verona, Italy) with standard exposure settings (11 cm × 16 cm field of view, 0.3 mm voxel size, 110 kV, 3.6–5.4s). Milliamperage was automatically (safe-beam) adjusted based on the anatomy of each patient from 1 to 20 mA. The inclusion criteria for the maxillary first molars were: No cusp coverage that would complicate the measurements, no history of previous root canal therapy, completely formed apices with no resorption, and no metallic restorations or orthodontic brackets on the maxillary first molars or the adjacent teeth.
All measurements were made using NNT Viewer software (NNT 2.21; Image Works, Verona, Italy) [Figure 1]. First, the number of canals and presence/absence of MB2 was determined on axial sections [Figure 2] and [Figure 3]. Then, the buccolingual width of the mesiobuccal root at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) and mid-root level was measured and recorded in the axial plane using the software ruler [Figure 4], [Figure 5]. The type of canal according to the Vertucci's classification was determined on the sagittal plane and confirmed by changing the section in the axial plane from the pulp chamber to the apex. Vertucci classification system is one of the most commonly used classifications and has been beneficial when categorizing many, but not all, canal configurations. This classification described the root canal system of human permanent teeth into eight different types (4).
|Figure 2: Measurement of buccolingual width of the mesiobuccal root at the CEJ level.|
Click here to view
|Figure 3: Evaluation of the number of canals and presence/absence of second mesiobuccal canal (left side).|
Click here to view
|Figure 4: Evaluation of the number of canals and presence/absence of second mesiobuccal canal (right side).|
Click here to view
|Figure 5: Measurement of buccolingual width of the mesiobuccal root at the mid-root level.|
Click here to view
Data were coded and analyzed using SPSS version 22.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and t-test.
| Results|| |
A total of 311 maxillary first molars were evaluated; out of which, 153 (49.1%) had three canals and 158 (50.8%) had four canals. [Table 1] shows the frequency distribution of mesiobuccal, distobuccal, and palatal root canal types.
|Table 1: Frequency distribution of mesiobuccal, distobuccal, and palatal root canal types according to the Vertucci's classification|
Click here to view
In maxillary first molars with MB2 canals, the mesiobuccal root width at the CEJ level was 1 mm (P < 0.001) and at mid-root level was 1.5 mm (P < 0.001) wider than the corresponding values in teeth without MB2 canal, respectively. [Table 2] shows the mean buccolingual width of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molars at the CEJ and mid-root level in the presence and absence of MB2.
|Table 2: Mean buccolingual width of the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molars at the cementoenamel junction and mid-root level in the presence and absence of mesiobuccal 2|
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
This study evaluated 311 maxillary first molars on CBCT scans of an Iranian population. The number of canals in each root, type of each canal, the prevalence of MB2 in the maxillary first molars and its correlation with buccolingual width of mesiobuccal root were evaluated.
High-resolution CBCT scans were evaluated in this study. First, the axial section was evaluated since it shows the cross-section of all roots and canals in one view and is also, suitable for determining the number of canals in each root. Furthermore, the buccolingual width of the root at the CEJ and mid-root level can be well measured in the axial plane.
CBCT is a relatively new technique with excellent accuracy, which is noninvasive and can be used in vivo and ex vivo. Our results showed that the prevalence of MB2 in the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molars in subjected population was 50.1%, and most of them were Vertucci's Type II followed by Types IV, V, III, and VI.
Rouhani et al., in 2014 evaluated the root canal system of 125 maxillary first molars of an Iranian population collected from five geographical locations in Iran using CBCT. They reported that 53% of teeth had MB2. Another study conducted by Zhang et al., in 2011 in China on 299 maxillary first molars using CBCT revealed that 52% of teeth had MB2 and they were mostly Type IV. Ghonche et al., study in 2017 on the Iranian population using CBCT, showed the prevalence of MB2 46%, which was in line with our results.
A systematic review by Naseri et al., in 2016 on maxillary first molars of an Iranian population reported the prevalence of MB2 to be 55%. They also assessed the mesiobuccal root canal types and reported that Types II, IV, III, and V had the highest prevalence. Our findings were in agreement with theirs regarding the prevalence of MB2 and canal types.
Regarding the correlation of buccolingual width of the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars with the presence of MB2, it was evaluated in 311 maxillary first molars; out of which, 50.1% had MB2. The results showed that the buccolingual width of mesiobuccal root with MB2 at the CEJ and mid-root level was significantly greater than that of teeth without MB2.
Salarpour et al., in 2013 measured the buccolingual width (distance between the buccal and lingual cusps) of 83 mandibular premolars using CBCT and found no significant association between the presence of an additional canal and size of the crown. Ghamari et al., in 2017 evaluated 202 extracted mandibular incisors in terms of their buccolingual and mesiodistal widths. Measurements revealed that teeth with two canals and Vertucci's Type III were significantly larger in both buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions compared to single-canal teeth.
In another study conducted in 2012 on a Korean population, mandibular first and second molars were evaluated in 86 CBCT scans. The results showed that molars with distolingual roots had a significantly wider buccolingual width than molars without a distolingual root. Comparison of our results with previous studies reveals that the root canal morphology and root anatomy can be correlated. However, further studies are required to achieve a final conclusion in this issue.
| Conclusion|| |
The results showed that the width of the mesiobuccal root in maxillary first molars at the CEJ and mid-root level was correlated with the number of root canals.
This study was part of a thesis supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences, International Campus, Tehran, Iran.
Financial support and sponsorship
Conflicts of interest
The authors of this manuscript declare that they have no conflicts of interest, real or perceived, financial or non-financial in this article.
| References|| |
Huang CC, Chang YC, Chuang MC, Lai TM, Lai JY, Lee BS, et al.
Evaluation of root and canal systems of mandibular first molars in Taiwanese individuals using cone-beam computed tomography. J Formos Med Assoc 2010;109:303-8.
Hoen MM, Pink FE. Contemporary endodontic retreatments: An analysis based on clinical treatment findings. J Endod 2002;28:834-6.
Hargreaves KM, Cohen S. Cohen's Pathways of Pulp Mosby. 11th
ed., Ch. 7. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier; 2016. p. 175.
Ruddle CJ. MB2 root canal systems in maxillary first molars. Dent Today 1995;14:38, 40-1.
Ghamari M, Mollashahi NF, Salarpour M, Mousavi E, Kazemian K, Moudi E, et al.
Evaluation of the relationship between crown size and root canal morphology of mandibular incisors by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Electron Physician 2017;9:5001-7.
Salarpour M, Farhad Mollashahi N, Mousavi E, Salarpour E. Evaluation of the effect of tooth type and canal configuration on crown size in mandibular premolars by cone-beam computed tomography. Iran Endod J 2013;8:153-6.
Kim KR, Song JS, Kim SO, Kim SH, Park W, Son HK. Morphological changes in the crown of mandibular molars with an additional distolingual root. Arch Oral Biol 2013;58:248-53.
Neelakantan P, Subbarao C, Subbarao CV. Comparative evaluation of modified canal staining and clearing technique, cone-beam computed tomography, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, spiral computed tomography, and plain and contrast medium-enhanced digital radiography in studying root canal morphology. J Endod 2010;36:1547-51.
Neelakantan P, Subbarao C, Ahuja R, Subbarao CV, Gutmann JL. Cone-beam computed tomography study of root and canal morphology of maxillary first and second molars in an Indian population. J Endod 2010;36:1622-7.
Naseri M, Safi Y, Akbarzadeh Baghban A, Khayat A, Eftekhar L. Survey of anatomy and root canal morphology of maxillary first molars regarding age and gender in an Iranian population using cone- beam computed tomography. Iran Endod J 2016;11:298-303.
Eder A, Kantor M, Nell A, Moser T, Gahleitner A, Schedle A, et al.
Root canal system in the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar: An in vitro
comparison study of computed tomography and histology. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2006;35:175-7.
Rouhani A, Bagherpour A, Akbari M, Azizi M, Nejati A, Naghavi N. Cone-beam computed tomography evaluation of maxillary first and second molars in Iranian population: A morphological study. Iran Endod J 2014;9:190.
Zhang R, Yang H, Yu X, Wang H, Hu T, Dummer PM. Use of CBCT to identify the morphology of maxillary permanent molar teeth in a Chinese sub population. Int Endod J 2011;44:162-9.
Ghonche Z, Moghadamzade B, Kharazifard MJ. Root morphology of the maxillary first and second molars in an Iranian population using cone beam computed tomography. J Dent (Tehran) 2017;14:115.
Naseri M, Kharazifard MJ, Hosseinpour S. Canal configuration of mesiobuccal roots in permanent maxillary first molars in Iranian population: A systematic review. J Dent (Tehran) 2016;13:438-47.
[Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]
[Table 1], [Table 2]