The present and future status of oral and maxillofacial pathology in Iran: A multicenter study
Seyed Hosein Tabatabaei1, Seyed Mohammad Razavi2, Nasrollah Saghravanian3, Donia Sadri4, Pouyan Aminishakib5, Nazanin Mahdavi5, Fatemeh Keshmiri6, Nafiseh Shamloo7
1 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Implant Dental Research Center, Dental School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
3 Oral and Maxillofacial Disease Research Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran Medical Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Yazd, Iran
5 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
6 Medical Education Department, Education Development Center, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran
7 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Dr. Nafiseh Shamloo
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: At present, the status of oral and maxillofacial pathology (OMFP) in the country is not properly good. This study aimed to investigate the current status and develop practical approaches to improve occupational condition of the specialty in the future from the viewpoint of the beneficiaries.
Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The participants were oral and maxillofacial pathologists of the country (200 individuals), OMFP residents (9 individuals), and final year dental students at six dentistry school of the country at 2020 (200 individuals) through multicenter design. At the first phase, the related questionnaires were developed and assessed psychometrically. Reliability of the questionnaires, internal consistency, and repeatability were computed and confirmed. At the second phase, the survey questionnaires on the current and future condition were sent electronically to the study groups. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tests (mean, standard deviation, percentage) and the Pearson test using SPSS.
Results: At the first phase, after primary design of the study too, 23 variables with content validity ratio below 0.56 and content validity index (CVI) below 0.79 were omitted. The questionnaire for the specialists was confirmed with Cronbach's alpha of 0.75 and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as 0.83, and the questionnaire for the students and the residents were confirmed with Cronbach's alpha of 0.95 and ICC of 0.80. Results of the second phase showed that score of tendency of students to select OMFP specialty to continue education was 1.58 ± 0.57 from 5. Satisfaction score of specialists on specialized activity of this specialty is 2.7 ± 1.52 from 5. The most important reason for the students to select this specialty was “interest in being faculty member,” and the “difficulty of the specialty” was the most probable reason for not selecting this specialty. The most important priority of the residents was “interest in specialty” and for the specialists was “being faculty member.” The most important reason to change attitude regarding the specialty by the specialists was mentioned as “high occupational and profession responsibility as well as low income” with the score of 1.38 ± 3.99. “Fundamental revision in the educational curriculum of the specialty” with a score of 4.60 ± 0.93 from 5 was considered as the most important revisionary approach from the viewpoint of specialists.
Conclusion: At present, the main problem regarding the OMPF specialty in the country is “high number of graduates and lack of the present occupational opportunities.” Evaluation and validation of the relevant specialized departments, producing occupational opportunities, and fundamental revision in the educational curriculum to train well-powered specialists are necessary.